拓印技法的探究与传承文献综述

 2022-07-22 01:07

一、摘 要

本课题研究的是拓印技法的传承与探究,主要是将拓印技法与传统手工印染相结合,从而寻找出一种新的艺术表现手法。查找有关拓印、木刻艺术,包括木雕,木版画的书籍使我联想到可以将木刻与拓印相结合,手工木刻与拓印所具有质朴感,给人的返璞归真的感觉,此外还有包括民间工艺(染织、拓印等)书籍期刊,了解到传统手工艺的发展和现状。传统手工艺是民间文化的代表性产物,是民族智慧的结晶。在手工业时代,无论是实用方面还是审美方面,传统手工艺都是相当重要的角色。[1]然而,工业化的发展给传统手工艺带来了严重的冲击。随着物质生活的丰富,人们逐渐意识到传统手工艺的不可替代的优点。本文首先详细阐述传统拓印的价值和传承意义、以及国内外的发展现状及存在的问题,结合自身体会,探究拓印的传承方式及未来发展道路。以印度传统手工木版土布为例进行剖析,深刻领会印度传统手工木版土布的发展历程、工艺特征及文化内涵等,并研究它的工艺的传承和开发现状。在此基础上学习印度手工木版土布是如何重新崛起的经验,积极探索如何立足传统来创造新的艺术风格,归纳出它的发展经验,存在的问题。在参照前人经验的基础上,加入现代化的设计理念,使古老工艺焕发出新的光辉。使之为中国民间传统手工艺的发展起到积极的借鉴作用。[2]

关键词:拓印;木刻;民间工艺;传统文化

ABSTRACT

This subject is to study the inheritance and exploration of the extension printing techniques, mainly to combine the extension printing techniques with the traditional manual printing and dyeing, so as to find out a new art expression method. Find out about the extension printing, woodcut art, including wood carving. Woodcut books remind me of the combination of woodcut and lithography, the simplicity of handmade woodcut and extension printing, the sense of returning to nature, and the folklore (dyeing and weaving). Traditional handicraft is the representative product of folk culture and the crystallization of national wisdom. In the handicraft age. Both practical and aesthetic aspects, the traditional handicraft is a very important role. [1]However, the development of industrialization has brought serious impact to the traditional handicraft. With the enrichment of material life, people gradually realize the irreplaceable advantages of traditional handicraft. As well as the domestic and foreign development status and existing problems, combined with their own experience, explore the inheritance of the way and future development of printing. Take the traditional Indian wood-plate soil as an example to analyze. Deeply understand the development process, technological characteristics and cultural connotation of Indian traditional wood-plate soil cloth. And study the inheritance and development status of its craft. On this basis, learn how the Indian handmade woodplate soil cloth is how to re-rise experience, actively explore how to base on the tradition to create a new artistic style. Sum up its development experience, existing problems. On the basis of reference to the previous experience, join the modern design concept. Make the old craft radiate new brilliance, make it play a positive reference role in the development of Chinese traditional handicraft. [2]

Key words:lithography; woodcut; folk craft; traditional culture

二、正文

1.拓印的历史发展和传承意义

拓印在我国有着相当悠久的历史。古人们为了把石碑或器物上的文字或图画印在纸张上,从而发明了拓印术。《随书˙经籍志一》:“其相承传拓之本,犹在祕府。”;王建《原上新居诗》:“古碣凭人拓”。[3]拓印术是华夏祖先在长期的生活实践中获得的技艺,关于拓印术的起源,历史上没有记载,迄今为止说法不一,难以定论。大多数人认为,拓印术始于东汉熹平年间。但有一点是可以确定的,即拓印术的出现肯定是在纸张发明之后才出现的,并且拓印方法起源甚古,且比雕版印刷早出现。在隋代文字的拓印技术已经很发达,这也说明了在这之前,拓印术就出现了。到了唐代,拓印术就与更发达了,不仅有民间进行拓印的作坊,而且政府的也专门成立了拓印的机构。在漫长的历史进程中逐渐完善和成熟,融于中华民族传统文化的血脉之中,在我国文化发展史上留下了深刻的烙印。[4]经过不断的发展、创新,将拓印技术应用于各种艺术变现形式中。

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