林木种子裹衣机设计文献综述

 2022-07-22 15:24:09

林木种子裹衣机设计

摘要:自“九五”计划起,我国就将实行“种子工程”作为一个实现跨世纪农业发展的战略。我国在对林木种子的加工处理上的能力于发达国家来比还有一定的差距,使其发展成为一个完整种子工业系统仍需要进行许多研究与时间,而林木种子裹衣是种子加工处理的一项重要环节,它通过粘着剂或者成膜剂,将杀菌、杀虫剂、肥料以及其他有利于其生长发育的成分按一定比例均匀有效地敷在种子表层,使种子的外形尺寸达到规格化,便于实现机械化作业。使用种子裹衣技术不但改善了其原本的物理形状,还增强了它自身的适应性,为一些先天不足的种子创造良好的条件,促进它们的生长,同时也节约了经济成本,收获也可以更加丰富,对保障食品的安全起到了重要的意义。本文首先介绍了林木种子裹衣机的背景与概念,然后开始分析不同种类裹衣机的特点以及其工作原理。之后在此基础上,进行对所研发设备的关键零部件的选型,在前人的基础上作出一定的设计创新,对裹衣机的结构设计进行了着重介绍。最后结合国内外林木种子裹衣的发展情况,提出加快我国种子裹衣机的措施和意见。

关键词:种子;裹衣技术;发展

Design of seed wrapping Machine for Forest trees

ABSTRACT:Since the Ninth Five-Year Plan, China will carry out seed engineering as a strategy to realize the cross-century agricultural development.China#39;s ability to process and treat tree seeds is still far behind that of developed countries. It still takes a lot of research and time to develop into a complete seed industry system, and tree seed wrapping is an important part of seed processing, which uses adhesives or film forming agents to sterilize, insecticide, Fertilizers and other components which are favorable to their growth and development are evenly and effectively applied to the surface layer of seeds in a certain proportion, so that the shape and size of seeds are standardized, which is convenient for mechanized operation. The technology not only improves its original physical shape, but also enhances its adaptability, creating favorable conditions for some gifted seeds, promoting their growth, and also saving economic costs. Harvest can also be enriched, which plays an important role in ensuring the safety of food. This paper first introduces the background and concept of tree seed wrapping machine. Then it begins to analyze the characteristics of different kinds of clothes wrapping machines and their working principles. Then, on this basis, the selection of key parts of the developed equipment is carried out, and the design innovation is made on the basis of the predecessors. The structure design of garment wrapping machine is introduced emphatically. Finally, according to the development of tree seed coating at home and abroad, the paper puts forward the measures and suggestions to speed up the seed wrapping machine in China.

Key words:Seed;coating technology; development

1、课题研究目的和意义

自“九五”计划起,我国就将实行“种子工程”作为科教兴国和实现跨世纪农业发展战略来抓[1]。我国在对林木种子的加工处理上的能力于发达国家来比还有一定的差距,使其发展成为一个完整种子工业系统仍需要进行许多研究与时间。而林木种子裹衣虽然是只是种子加工处理环节中的一部分,通过成膜剂或者粘着剂,将杀虫剂、肥料以及其他有利于其生长发育的成分按一定比例均匀有效地敷在种子表层,从而增长种子的抗病能力,推动种子生长发育,是提升作物产量的一项种子综合处理技术。有研究结果表明,应用种子包衣技术玉米可以增产10%以上,棉花可以增产8.8%以上,小麦可以增产6.0%以上,大豆、油菜、水稻可以分别增产16%,6%和7%以上,增产效果显著[2]。目前,世界上农业发达国家的种子裹衣技术普及程度都很高。从一开始的棉花发展到大豆、花生、玉米、水稻、麦类、蔬菜、花卉等,裹衣目的也从一开始的规范播种上升防虫治病、提高抗逆性、促进作物发育等,成为一门可以依赖科学进步、提高经济发展、可带动整个种子行业健康发展的综合性高新技术。由此引起了发达国家的重点关注,从而开始快速地推动着世界种业的发展。目前我国几十家科研机构、企业对种子裹衣机的研制,主要是基于消化、吸收欧美等发达国家的技术。近年来,针对定量供药、自动控制、包衣均匀度等方面的问题,已研发出不少新设备,是我国裹衣技术迈进一大步,但整体技术水平依然落后。因此研发适用范围更广、性能更优良、方便操作,可实现连续供料,远程控制的新型种子裹衣机就显得尤为重要[3]

2、国内外研究现状

2.1国内研究现状分析

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