基于Sebal和Sebs模型的南京市地表日蒸散发估算与空间格局分析文献综述

 2022-07-20 08:07

Remote sensing and in situ measurements of methane and ammonia emissions from a megacity dairy complex: Chino, CA*

基于遥感和实地测量方法的甲烷和氨气排放测量——以特大城市的奶牛加工厂:加州为例

Keywords: Methane Ammonia Husbandry Megacity TIR hyperspectral

Cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy Remote sensing IASI

关键词:甲烷 氨气 农业 特大城市 热红外高光谱 腔增强吸收光谱 遥感 IASI

Abstract: Methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) directly and indirectly affect the atmospheric radiative balance with the latter leading to aerosol generation. Both have important spectral features in the Thermal InfraRed (TIR) that can be studied by remote sensing, with NH3 allowing discrimination of husbandry from other CH4 sources. Airborne hyperspectral imagery was collected for the Chino Dairy Complex in the LosAngeles Basin as well as in situ CH4, carbon dioxide (CO2) and NH3 data. TIR data showed good spatial agreement with in situ measurements and showed significant emissions heterogeneity between dairies.Airborne remote sensing mapped plume transport for ~20 km downwind, documenting topographic effects on plume advection. Repeated multiple gas in situ measurements showed that emissions were persistent on half-year timescales. Inversion of one dairy plume found annual emissions of 4.1 *105 kg CH4, 2.2 *105 kg NH3, and 2.3 *107 kg CO2, suggesting 2300, 4000, and 2100 head of cattle, respectively, and Chino Dairy Complex emissions of 42 Gg CH4 and 8.4 Gg NH3 implying ~200k cows, ~30% more than Peischl et al. (2013) estimated for June 2010. Far-field data showed chemical conversion and/or deposition of Chino NH3 occurs within the confines of the Los Angeles Basin on a four to six h timescale, faster than most published rates, and likely from higher Los Angeles oxidant loads. Satellite observations from 2011 to 2014 confirmed that observed in situ transport patterns were representative and suggests much of the Chino Dairy Complex emissions are driven towards eastern Orange County, with a lesser amount transported to Palm Springs, CA. Given interest in mitigating husbandry health impacts from air pollution emissions, this study highlights how satellite observations can be leveraged to understand exposure and how multiple gas in situ emissions studies can inform on best practices given that emissions reduction of one gas could increase those of others.

甲烷(CH4)和氨(NH3)直接和间接影响大气辐射平衡,后者导致气溶胶产生。两者在热红外(TIR)中都具有可以通过遥感研究的重要光谱特征,其中以氨气为来源的畜牧业和以甲烷为来源的畜牧业是不同的。我们收集了位于洛杉矶盆地的加州乳制品加工厂的机载高光谱影像和实测甲烷、二氧化碳和氨气数据。热红外数据显示了与原位测量良好的空间一致性,也显示了乳制品厂排放之间的同质性。机载遥感绘制了云下约20km处的羽流图像,记录了对羽流平流的地形影响。多次现场气体测量表明,排放在半年的时间尺度上是持续的。对某乳品烟柱进行倒置,发现其年排放量为4.1 *105 kg CH4,2.2 *105 kg NH3, and 2.3 *107 kg CO2, 表明各自有2300,4000以及2100头牛,与2010年6月Peischl et al.(2013)估算的相比,Chino Dairy Complex排放42 Gg CH4和8.4 Gg NH3,意味着奶牛约20万头,比估算的多约30%。远场数据显示,奇诺 NH3的化学转化和/或沉积发生在洛杉矶盆地范围内,时间跨度为4至6小时,比大多数公布的速率要快,而且很可能来自洛杉矶更高的氧化剂负荷。2011年至2014年的卫星观测证实,现场运输模式具有代表性,并表明,奇诺乳品集团排放的大部分污染物都流向了东部的橘子郡,较少的污染物被运往加州棕榈泉。鉴于人们对减轻空气污染排放对畜牧业健康的影响很感兴趣,这项研究突出了如何利用卫星观测来了解接触量,以及在一种气体的减排可能增加其他气体的减排的情况下,如何利用多种气体原位排放研究来提供最佳实践的信息。

Introduction

1.1. Methane

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